Atherogenic index of plasma in COVID-19 infection

Atherogenic index of plasma and COVID-19




Atherogenic index of plasma, Cardiac risk, COVID-19


The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is calculated as the logarithmic conversion of the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio [log10 (triglyceride / HDL-cholesterol)]. AIP values ​​of <0.11 are considered low risk, values ​​between 0.11 and 0.21 are considered medium risk, and values ​​>0.21 are considered high risk. AIP produced by triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol, avoiding the inconsistent assessment of different lipid components and simplifies the prediction task of a marker in practical application. It has been reported that AIP value is an important predictor for cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. COVID-19 is a viral infection that started in 2019 and quickly caused a pandemic. And it continues to cause death, especially in people with pre-existing comorbidities. COVID-19 infection is associated with lipid levels and cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that AIP is high level in COVID-19. In addition, studies have found that high AIP values ​​are associated with prolonged hospital stay, poor prognosis, and increased disease severity. Reporting of AIP value in laboratory results may alarm clinicians for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases.


Dobiasova M, Frohlich J. The plasma parameter log (TG/HDL-C) as an atherogenic index: correlation with lipoprotein particle size and esterification rate in apoB-lipoprotein-depleted plasma (FER (HDL)). Clin Biochem. 2001;34(7):583–8.

Nwagha UI, Ikekpeazu EJ, Ejezie FE, Neboh EE, Maduka IC. Atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria. African health sciences. 2010;10(3):248–52.

Shen S, Lu Y, Qi H, Li F, Shen Z, Wu L, et al. Association between ideal cardiovascular health and the atherogenic index of plasma. Medicine. 2016; 95(24):e3866.

Chang Y, Li Y, Guo X, Dai D, Sun Y. The Association of ideal cardiovascular health and atherogenic index of plasma in rural population: a cross-sectional study from Northeast China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(10):1027.

Zhu XW, Deng FY, Lei SF. Meta-analysis of atherogenic index of plasma and other lipid parameters in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Primary Care Diabetes. 2015;9(1):60–67.

Pourfarzam M, Zadhoush F, Sadeghi M. The difference in correlation between insulin resistance index and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes with and without metabolic syndrome. Advanced Biomedical Research. 2016;5(1):153.

Xiaowei Zhu, Lugang Yu, Hui Zhou, Qinhua Ma, Xiaohua Zhou, Ting Lei, et al. Atherogenic index of plasma is a novel and better biomarker associated with obesity: a population-based cross-sectional study in China. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17:37.

Fangfei Xie, Hong Zhou, Yun Wang. Atherogenic index of plasma is a novel and strong predictor associated with fatty liver: a cross-sectional study in the Chinese Han population. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2019;18:170.

Goliasch G, Wiesbauer F, Blessberger H, Demyanets S, Wojta J, Huber K, et al. Premature myocardial infarction is strongly associated with increased levels of remnant cholesterol. J Clin Lipidol. 2015;9:801–6.

Cai G, Shi G, Xue S, Lu W. The atherogenic index of plasma is a strong and independent predictor for coronary artery disease in the Chinese Han population. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96(37):e8058.

Zhu L, Lu Z, Zhu L, Ouyang X, Yang Y, He W, et al. Lipoprotein ratios are better than conventional lipid parameters in predicting coronary heart disease in Chinese Han people. Kardiol Pol. 2015;73:931–8.

Mudhaffar Sami Khazaál. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) as a parameter in predicting cardiovascular risk in males compared to the conventional dyslipidemic indices (Cholesterol ratios). Karbala J Med. 2013;6(1):1506-13.

Dömling A, Gao L. Chemistry and biology of SARS-CoV-2. Chem. 2020;6(6): 1283–95.

Dos Santos W. Natural history of COVID-19 and current knowledge on treatment therapeutic options. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020;129:110493.

Bae S, Kim SR, Kim MN, Shim WJ, Park SM. Impact of cardiovascular disease and risk factors on fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19 according to age: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart. 2021;107(5):373–80.

Radenkovic D, Chawla S, Pirro M, Sahebkar A, Banach M. Cholesterol in relation to COVID-19: should we care about it? J Clin Med. 2020;9(6):1909.

Kočar E, Režen T, Rozman D. Cholesterol, lipoproteins, and COVID-19: basic concepts and clinical applications. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 1866;2021(2):158849.

Glende J, Schwegmann-Wessels C, Al-Falah M, Susanne Pfefferle, Xiuxia Qu, Hongkui Deng, et al. Importance of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains in the interaction of the S protein of SARS-coronavirus with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Virology. 2008;381(2):215–21

Hu X, Chen D, Wu L, He G, Ye W. Declined serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with the severity of COVID-19 infection. Clin Chim Acta. 2020;510:105-10.

Wang G, Zhang Q, Zhao X, Dong H, Wu C, Wu F, et al. Low high-density lipoprotein level is correlated with the severity of COVID-19 patients: an observational study. Lipids Health Dis. 2020;19:204.

Zaki N, Alashwal H, Ibrahim S. Association of hypertension, diabetes, stroke, cancer, kidney disease, and high-cholesterol with COVID-19 disease severity and fatality: a systematic review. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020141133-42.

Fan J, Wang H, Ye G, Cao X, Xu X, Tan W, et al. Letter to the Editor: Low-density lipoprotein is a potential predictor of poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Metabolism. 2020;107:154243.

Wei X, Zeng W, Su J, Wan H, Yu X, Cao X, et al. Hypolipidemia is associated with the severity of COVID-19. J Clin Lipidol. 2020;14:297-304.

Cao X, Yin R, Albrecht H, Fan D, Tan W. Cholesterol: a new game player accelerating vasculopathy caused by SARS-CoV-2? Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020;319:197-202.

Karaseva AA, Evdokimova NE, Stryukova EV, Khudyakova AD, Logvinenko II. Associations of changes in lipid metabolism parameters and the severity of COVID-19 infection in Novosibirsk residents. Russ. J. Cardiol. 2022;27(9):4979.

Sastrawan GG, Satyakumara Upadhana P, Handayani PN, Laela TRN, Sukma Dewi KA, Andika Wiguna NB, et al. Atherogenic index of plasma is correlated with prolonged length of stay in COVID-19 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in RSUP Sanglah Denpasa. J Penyakit Dalam Ind. 2022;9:2.

Taha EM, Mohialdeen Taha, Al-Obaidy SK, Faris Hasan, Rahim SM. Association between Atherogenic Index and Cholesterol to HDL Ratio in COVID-19 Patients During the Initial Phase of Infection. Arch Razi Instit. 2022;77:33

Evdokimova NE, Striukova EV, Maslatsov NA, Khudyakova AD, Volkova MV, Logvinenko II. Association of lipid profile parameters, atherogenic index of plasma, anthropometric parameters with the severity of the COVID-19 course in Novosibirsk women. Ateroscleroz. 2021;17(4):20–7.

Turgay Yıldırım Ö, Kaya S. The atherogenic index of plasma as a predictor of mortality in patients with COVID-19. Heart &Lung. 2021;(50):329-33.




How to Cite

Dikker, O., İncirkuş, F. ., Ak, K., Arabacı, Çiğdem, & Dağ, H. . (2023). Atherogenic index of plasma in COVID-19 infection: Atherogenic index of plasma and COVID-19. The Injector, 2(1), 52–56.